Monday, March 27, 2006

OPEN POST - research on liver dumping

I've tried to find out information on liver dumps, and there's a lot out there.  In fact, this free fatty acid metabolism issue is seemingly at the core of diabetes, meaning it could be a cause, and if we have a starting point for where diabetes develops, then there could be a cure.

That's what I want.  A cure.  I don't want to be told that if I wasn't such a bad person eating wrong foods, I wouldn't be fat and I wouldn't be diabetic.  There are fat sedentary people out there who don't develop hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance.  There are also very thin people who have a problem with fat reserves that develop insulin resistance.  I also don't want just a control --- I demand a cure.  The pharmaceutical industry is making billions off of diabetes.  Why would they want a cure for this condition? Case in point -- Multiple! Sclerosis.  One pharmaceutical company was proven to be hiring off researchers looking for a cure, putting them on the payroll and then refusing to let them continue their research.

I think if there is a cure developed, it will have to be by diabetics themselves becoming fed up with traditional approaches to their disease.  The traditional measures aren't working.  Invariably, T2 diabetics become more and more sick as time goes by whether they 'control' their diabetes or not.

Anybody recall the movie 'Lorenzo's Oil'?  That condition was also caused by fatty acid metabolic disease.  It was cured through diet alone too, and the family, not physicians, found the correct oil supplement which stopped the destruction.

I invite anyone here to continue the research with me to find the cure, to ask the questions, to demand the answers.

I, for one, and I don't give a damn whether this is controversial, am taking myself off glybu! ride.  I don't need more insulin.  I will continue to take Avandia because it addresses the liver dumping and cells insulin resistance.  I believe that to put more insulin in my body will cause this disease to progress.  I'm eating more often to try and calm this over-excited liver of mine.  My pancreas isn't the issue as it is in Type One Diabetes.

Bonita --- who is tired of pat answers and boilerplates


  • At 9:23 PM, Anonymous Bonita said…

    Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Reduce Women's Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

    05/31/2001 By Elda Hauschildt

    Trans fatty acids increase the risk of type 2 diabetes in women, while polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce that risk.

    Total fat intake as well as saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid intake are not associated with type 2 diabetes risk in women, an international team of researchers reports.

    "Substituting non-hydrogenated polyunsaturated fatty acids for trans fatty acids would likely reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes substantially," say investigators from Harvard University and Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts and the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in Mexico City.

    They followed 84,204 women aged 34 to 59 years for a total 14 years. All were free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer at baseline in 1980.

    Detailed dietary information taken at baseline was updated three times�in 1984, 1986 and 1990.

    Investigators used pooled logistic models, adjusted for non-dietary and dietary covariates, to obtain relative risks for type 2 diabetes.

    They documented 2,507 incident cases of diabetes among participants during follow-up.

    "Total fat intake, compared with equivalent energy intake from carbohydrates, was not associated with risk of type 2 diabetes," the researchers concluded. They point out that for a 5 percent increase in total energy from fat, the relative risk was 0.98.

    Intake of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were also not significantly associated with diabetes risk. "However, for a 5 percent increase in energy from polyunsaturated fat, the relative risk was 0.63, and for a 2 percent increase in energy from trans fatty acids the relative risk was 1.39.

    "We estimated that replacing 2 percent of energy from trans fatty acids isoenergetically with polyunsaturated fat would lead to a 40 percent lower risk." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2001; 73: 1019-1026.


  • At 1:08 AM, Anonymous Bonita said…

    Trans Fatty Acids Increase Risk Of Diabetes Type 2 Diabetes August 9, 2001 2001 AUG 9 - ( & -- by Carol K. Kohn, MS, ELS(D), senior medical writer - Switching from dietary trans fatty acids to nonhydrogenated polyunsaturated fats can substantially reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, say U.S. researchers.

    F. Salmeron and colleagues from the Harvard University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, designed a prospective study to clarify the relationship between fat intake and the risk of diabetes in women.

    The researchers obtained baseline dietary information in 1980 from 84,204 women (ages 34-59 years) who did not have diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or cancer. Subjects updated their information by filling out questionnaires three times during the study period - in 1984, 1986, and 1990. Risk of developing type 2 diabetes was statistically determined with adjustments made for other dietary and nondietary factors ("Dietary fat intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in women," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2001;73(6):1019-1026).

    Salmeron and coworkers followed the cohort for 14 years and saw 2,507 incident cases of diabetes during that time. However, they did not find that total fat intake, versus the same carbohydrate energy intake, increased diabetes risk (relative risk = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.94, 1.02, for 5% increase in total energy from fat). Likewise, there was no diabetes link with saturated or monounsaturated fats, and polyunsaturated fat showed a relative risk of 0.63 (0.53, 0.76; p<0.0001) for the same energy increase of 5%.

    They found, however, a clear connection with trans fatty acids and increased risk. For a 2% energy increase the relative risk (RR) was 1.39 (1.15, 1.67; p=0.0006).

    "We estimated that replacing 2% of energy from trans fatty acids isoenergetically with polyunsaturated fat would lead to a 40% lower risk (RR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.75)," Salmeron and coauthors concluded.

    The corresponding author for this study is F.B. Hu, Harvard University School of Public Health, Department of Nutrition, 665 Huntington Ave., Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Key points reported in this study include:

    * The connection between fat intake and type 2 diabetes risk was studied in 84,204 women through dietary questionnaires over a 14-year period

    * At baseline, study subject did not have diabetes, cardiovascular disease or cancer; during the study, 2,507 incident cases of diabetes were documented

    * Total fat and saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids had no link to diabetes risk in the women, but trans fatty acid increased risk while nonhydrogenated polyunsaturated fat reduced it

    * Substituting nonhydrogenated polyunsaturated for trans fatty acids in the diet could reduce diabetes risk 40% This article was prepared by Women's Health Weekly editors from staff and other reports.

  • At 1:23 AM, Anonymous Bonita said…

    Understanding Essential Fatty Acids by Heather Granato

    CLA: Beneficial Fatty Acid � References

    From sea to shining sea, and the amber waves of grain, a range of foods supply fats that are crucial to a healthy lifestyle.

    Fat is essential for human life. It is one of the three basic nutritional categories, together with protein and carbohydrates. However, it is also significantly misunderstood. It is not the only nutrient to blame for increased rates of obesity and heart disease--in fact, the advent of the low-fat frenzy coincided with the fast growth of obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Instead, fat provides energy, assists with neurotransmission and helps form prostaglandins--hormone-like compounds that regulate almost all body functions. Unfortunately, most people do not understand what makes up fat.

    Fatty acids are chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms that form triglycerides by joining with a glycerol molecule. Approximately 95 percent of the fat ingested by humans is in this form. Within the fatty acid category, there are several groupings based on specific chemical format.

    Fatty acids can be first separated into saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The saturated type includes butter or lard; they have a high melting temperature and the chemical links between the carbon atoms are single links, indicating the maximum amount of hydrogen is present. Because no more hydrogen can be inserted, the fat is saturated.

    The unsaturated fatty acids have some double bonds in their carbon links. If there is one double bond present, the fatty acid has a lower melting point and is called monounsaturated. Monounsaturated fats include those found in olive oil and sesame oil; these oils supply oleic acid, an omega-9 fatty acid that has its double bond nine carbons up from the tail. If more than one double bond is present, the fatty acid is polyunsaturated; the presence of two or more bonds lowers the melting point further. Polyunsaturated fats can be found in such sources as fish and flax.

    Polyunsaturates are further divided into classes of essential fatty acids (EFAs), which include omega-6s and omega-3s. Omega-6s include linoleic acid (LA) and its derivatives, gamma linolenic acid (GLA) and arachidonic acid (AA). Omega-3s include alpha linolenic acid (ALA) and ALA's derivatives, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and doscosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Theoretically, only LA and ALA are absolutely "essential," but their derivatives are generally considered essential as well.

    Marine plants such as plankton are the primary sources of omega-3 fatty acids in the food chain; fish feed on the plankton and absorb the ALA into their tissues as DHA and EPA. The richest land source of omega-3s is flaxseed oil. ALA is one of the primary structural components in cellular membranes, and serves as a precursor for the series 3 prostaglandins, which regulate the body's blood pressure, immune function and more.

    ALA is an 18-carbon fatty acid; an enzymatic process in the body produces additional double bonds, converting ALA into the 20-carbon fatty acid EPA. A further enzymatic process converts EPA into DHA, a 22-carbon fatty acid with six double bonds. EPA and DHA are also known as long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs). EPA appears to be the omega-3 that is primarily responsible for lowering triglyceride levels and promoting cardiovascular health, while DHA is one of the most abundant fatty acids in the brain and is responsible for proper brain development and neural transmission.

    The omega-6 LA is fairly prevalent in the human diet, as it is found in a wide variety of vegetable and seed oils. However, many people do not have good enzymatic conversion by the delta-6 desaturase enzyme of LA to GLA. GLA and dihomogamma linolenic acid (DGLA) are the precursors for the series 1 prostaglandins. As such, they regulate a number of body functions, including skin integrity and joint lubrication. AA, which is supplied by animal fats, is the precursor for the series 2 prostaglandins that increase inflammation in the body.

    High intakes of essential fatty acids can swing the balance from type 2 prostaglandins to the more beneficial types 1 and 3. A recent research review found that fish oil intake resulted in partial replacement of pro-inflammatory AA in cell membranes by EPA, decreasing the production of AA-derived mediators.1 In addition, these LCPUFAs from fish oil may suppress production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (immune proteins) and protect against inflammatory challenges.

    There are many health conditions associated with inflammation, from cardiovascular disease and arthritis to dermatitis and premenstrual syndrome (PMS). The actions of EFAs on inflammation are among their positive attributes in many different health conditions.

    Cardiovascular Disease: EFAs may be best known for their benefits to the cardiovascular system. In fact, in November 2002, the American Heart Association published recommendations that healthy adults eat at least two servings of fish per week, particularly those containing more EPA and DHA.2 They added that those at higher risk of cardiovascular disease may need more EPA and DHA than can be consumed strictly through the diet, and that supplements may be a viable alternative. "We have found that the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on heart disease risk is seen in relatively short periods of time," said Penny Kris-Etherton, lead researcher. "The research shows that all omega-3 fats have cardioprotective benefits, especially those in fish."

    Previous research supports the conclusion that fish oil is linked to cardioprotective effects. In fact, an Italian study found that treatment with LCPUFAs from fish oil significantly reduced the cumulative rate of all causes of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction and nonfatal stroke.3,4 Other studies have not found similar results for omega-6 EFAs. A recent research review concluded that only when ALA, DHA and EPA were added to the diet (rather than LA) was there a lowered rate of sudden cardiac death and nonfatal myocardial infarction.5

    Other researchers have come to similar conclusions. Researchers conducting one double blind study of 38 subjects reviewed systemic arterial compliance (SAC), a reflection of arterial elasticity, in response to EPA, DHA or placebo.6 They found that EPA increased SAC by 36 percent, and DHA increased SAC by 27 percent; in conclusion, the researchers noted, "EPA and DHA increase SAC and tend to reduce pulse pressure and total vascular resistance, effects that may reduce the risk of adverse cardiovascular effects."

    The effect on blood pressure has been noted in other studies. A metaregression analysis of randomized trials on fish oil and blood pressure concluded that a high intake of fish oil may lower blood pressure, especially in older and hypertensive subjects.7 The median dose was high in most trials (approximately 3.7 g/d), leading the researchers to suggest further study on the effects of lower doses.

    Cholesterol and blood lipid levels are also impacted by omega-6 EFAs. In a 2001 study, researchers found that replacing 10 percent of saturated fats in a rat's diet with perilla oil, borage oil or evening primrose oil (EPO) inhibited the increases of serum total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations.8 And while the vast majority of research on EFAs and cardiovascular disease has dealt with fish oil, one study examined the ability of flaxseed--particularly its lignan components--to improve lipid profiles.9 The researchers found that 40 g/d of ground flaxseed along with 1,000 mg/d of calcium and 400 IU/d of vitamin E lowered total and non-HDL cholesterol by 6 percent.

    While omega-3 EFAs have extensive research on their ability to protect the cardiovascular system, omega-3 and omega-6 EFAs impact many other health conditions.

    Arthritis: EFAs--particularly EPA and DHA--are thought to reduce the pain and inflammation found in arthritic conditions. Typically, human inflammatory cells contain high proportions of the omega-6 AA and low levels of the omega-3s EPA and DHA. By supplementing with omega-3s, the AA in inflammatory cell membranes is partially replaced by EPA, possibly reducing inflammatory immune response. One recent research review noted fish oil supplementation had beneficial effects in rheumatoid arthritis, which supports the idea that the omega-3s in fish oil have anti-inflammatory properties.10

    Skin disorders: Skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis have shown susceptibility to treatment with EFAs, particularly GLA. An animal study comparing diets of EPO and borage oil found the treatments decreased excessive skin cell production.11 They noted that borage was slightly more effective than EPO in this study. Another study comparing omega-3 to omega-6 supplementation for atopic dermatitis found that omega-3 did not decrease symptoms, while the omega-6 group saw marked long-term improvement.12

    The mechanism of action as to how GLA helps skin conditions has been unclear. A study out of Inha University, Korea, found that administering EPO to patients with atopic dermatitis improved skin lesions and affected serum levels of immunoglobulins, leading the researchers to conclude the action might be linked to immunomodulation.13

    Mental wellness/depression: EFAs may also assist in treating depression and other mental health conditions. Low levels of omega-3 EFAs are common in depression. In one 2002 study, researchers found that treatment with 1 g/d of EPA improved outcomes in patients with persistent depression.14 Another study found that EPA may prove an effective add-on treatment in schizophrenia.15

    Part of omega-3's effectiveness in treating brain disorders may be linked to its role in neurotransmission and brain development. DHA in particular is crucial for proper brain function, and pregnant women are advised to consume adequate levels for fetal brain development. Review studies have concluded LCPUFAs

  • At 10:23 AM, Anonymous Bonita said…

    Eicosanoid Balance and Essential Fatty Acids

    The evolution of life on earth is, to say the least, a fascinating subject of study. It seems to plod along, being the same for eon after eon, punctuated by transformational events. These transformational events create entirely new spaces � platforms for life to begin again, on which evolution can redefine itself. Each platform occurs at that point when, apparently, no further progress is possible.

    The greatest transformation was, of course, from inanimate to living: the creation of life. Without this transformation, nothing further was possible. The invention of living is a miracle which dwarfs all other wonders in the universe. Somehow, living material arose out of random chemical reactions, perhaps by chance, more likely by the hand of God.

    This living material then coated itself, separating itself from that out of which it came. This coat is called a "cell membrane." With this cell membrane, virus-like particles gave birth to intelligent, mobile, one cell animals. These animals evolved to the ceiling of the space provided by the cell membrane and there life remained for billions of years; apparently life was stymied at this level and could go no further. Then came the next great transformation: multicellular life.

    They must have tried incessantly before they finally got it right. A language was required: a compatible chemical language, with which two cells could speak to and understand each other. This chemical language would allow them to stick together and cooperate as one.

    It may have been a matter of nothing more than chance, that day when two cells met at the local coffee house and discovered that � voila! � they spoke compatible languages. Sticking together allowed them to live and reproduce as one and to divide the tasks of living between themselves � a happy marriage. Cooperation replaced domination at the cellular level, a transformation which is only now trying to happen between humans. It was so successful that soon other cells were applying for membership in the Multicellular Club.

    This little communication system, this compatible biochemical language, was a good idea, and when nature has a good idea she always keeps it. Therefore we, as multicellular animals, still have this complex, elegant method by which our cells speak to each other.

    This language cells speak to each other, we call the "crines." A common example is the language of the "endo-crines," the injection of chemical messengers into the blood by cells, to request action be taken at a distant location in the body. A "crine" is a chemical messenger, preceded by some letters which denote the nature and purpose of the crine. A crine is one type of "hormone," a word coined in 1905 by Ernest Starling, from the Greek hormao, meaning to put into quick motion, to excite, or to arouse.

    In the case of one cell speaking to its neighbor, the hormone messenger is call a "paracrine" literally a beside messenger. There are also "intracrines" and "autocrines," hormones which communicate within the same cell and hormones which are sent into the environment, but which return to the cell of origin.

    In this discussion we are interested in paracrines, the hormonal language spoken between cells which are close together. These messages are created and destroyed quickly, analogous to the spoken word. The message is delivered, and it is over instantly. Another identical message may be sent, but the first one is destroyed in seconds, or fractions of a second.

    The Eicosanoids

    In human biochemistry, the hormonal paracrines are called "eicosanoids," (pronounced eye-kos-a- noids). These powerful, highly unstable, short-lived hormones are divided into two basic groups: the "good" and the "bad." (Wouldn't you know it?) Their characteristics are as follows.

    "Good" Eicosanoids

      1.. Slow intravascular clotting, helping prevent strokes and heart attacks

      2.. Dilate blood vessels, delivering more fresh blood to organs and helping prevent high blood pressure

      3.. Suppress inflammation, helping prevent over-reaction to allergens

      4.. Control cellular proliferation, helping slow the growth of cancer

    "Bad" Eicosanoids

      1.. Speed intravascular clotting, predisposing to heart attack and stroke

      2.. Suppress the Immune system, predisposing to infection

      3.. Increase cellular proliferation, promoting the more rapid growth of cancer

      4.. Create new blood vessels, serving to feed a cancer

    It is a bit misleading to think of eicosanoids (or anything else) in terms of good and bad. As in the rest of reality, they balance each other, and it is just as "bad" for the balance to swing out of kilter in one direction as the other. Nevertheless, because the paradigm of the mind is opposites, i.e., the unconscious idea that everything which is real has an opposite, we must perceive good and bad, and we will have to live with the notion of good and bad eicosanoids.

    Balancing the Eicosanoids

    The game is to master the ability to maintain a balance of eicosanoids, so the good effects predominate. The first question which comes to mind is: why not put some good eicosanoids in a capsule and take two each day? With eicosanoids, it is not possible to use them as a supplement, because they are unstable molecules, designed to live a few seconds at most, and only in the milieu of the body. There will never be an eicosanoid pill similar to a vitamin pill. Billions of dollars have already been spent by the pharmaceutical industry in just such an effort, without results.

    The secret to knowing how to keep eicosanoids in balance comes from a thorough understanding of essential fatty acid metabolism. Essential fatty acids (EFAs) are necessary for life; that is why they are called "essential," for like the essential amino acids, life cannot happen without them, and yet the body cannot manufacture them.

    As the essential fatty acids are metabolized in the body, they transform, eventually, into eicosanoids, also known as "prostaglandins." Other names for good and bad eicosanoids are: "prostaglandins one" and "prostaglandins two," abbreviated "PGE-1" and "PGE-2," for prostaglandins E-1 and prostaglandins E-2.

    PGE-1 is the "good" eicosanoid. It is a phospholipid with the power to clear arteries of atherosclerotic plaque after a few injections directly into the artery, upstream from where the plaque formation is located. The reason we do not do this: PGE-1 is so unstable, it cannot be brought to market. Only under laboratory conditions can this procedure be done. PGE-1 must be used immediately after it is made, or it breaks down and is worthless.

    Because PGE-1 is not stable, and because it is the single most powerful biological therapeutic agent known to science, we must learn to allow the body to make its own abundant supply of PGE-1, if we are to reap the tremendous benefits of the good eicosanoids. To that end, let me explain how PGE-1 and PGE-2 are made.

    Here is a diagram of the synthesis of PGE-1 and PGE-2:

    Certain clinically applicable comments apply to steps one, three, three prime, and four. Let us look at each of those steps.

    Step 1

    It all begins with linoleic acid. This nutrient is abundant, present in food from animal and plant origin. It is practically impossible to eat food and be deficient in linoleic acid, the number one essential fatty acid. However, to be worth anything, linoleic acid must be activated, i.e., changed to the first activated EFA: gamma linolenic acid (GLA). This step requires an enzyme called "delta-6-desaturase," or "D-6-D."

    Flax oil, a commonly used supplement, contains omega-3 fatty acids. Omega-3 fatty acids compete with linoleic acid for D-6-D. Therefore if you supplement your diet by taking flax seed oil you slow down, at its source, the conversion of linoleic acid to the activated forms. Here are all the known factors which slow this reaction.

      1.. June 25, 1998   2.. Aging (and thus lower supplies of D-6-D)   3.. Trans-fatty acids (hydrogenated fatty acids found in margarine and many processed ("junk") foods   4.. High-carbohydrate diet   5.. Disease: cancer, diabetes, viral infections   6.. Stress (mediated through cortisol and adrenalin)

    This critical step (from linoleic acid to GLA), can be bypassed through direct supplement of your diet with GLA. GLA is contained in borage oil, evening primrose oil and black currant oil. For the best results, supplement with small amounts, meaning three to five drops per day. If you use large amounts, the initial good effects are reversed by the build up of arachidonic acid, later in this cascade of reactions.

    Step 2

    The conversion of GLA to DGLA proceeds automatically, and step two does not require consideration.

    Step 3A

    Steps 3A and 3B lie at the critical turning point of the metabolism of the EFAs. We want step 3A to predominate over step 3B, because it leads to PGE-1 and the good eicosanoids. In order for this to happen, we must have the following:       1.      A low insulin level      2.      A high glucagon level

    The factor which determines whether PGE-1 or PGE-2 predominates is the balance between insulin and its balancing hormone: glucagon. If we are to have firm control of the process, so as to favor PGE-1, and thus continuous excellent health, we must understand how insulin and glucagon are made in the human body.

    Insulin is made by the beta cells of the pancreas. The purpose of insulin is to facilitate the entry of glucose into cells throughout the body. The antagonist of insulin is glucagon, made by the alpha cells of the pancreas. Insulin promotes the creation of simple sugars from the liver, where the storage form is "glycogen," a kind of biological starch. This creation of freely circulating simple sugar (as glucose) is called "gluconeogenesis," literally "glucose new creation." Glucose can be made from protein, fat or glycogen (the complex carbohydrate storage form in the liver and muscles). While insulin

  • At 1:08 PM, Anonymous Malcolm said…



    Jeez   !!!     'Someone' is on 'a mission' tonight'    !!!!!

  • At 12:23 AM, Anonymous Bonita said…



      Interpretive Summary:

      The study describes the interactions between dietary fatty acids and the endocrine system. In turn, endocrine system (hormones) also affect the metabolism and plasma levels of fatty acids. Hormones as well as fatty acids are altered in diabetes. This alteration appears to be due to decreased insulin and increased glucagon levels in plasma. The level as well as the type of dietary fat affect the hormones. Thus, saturated and trans fatty acids (present in hydrogenated oils and some margarines) decrease insulin plasma insulin levels leading to insulin resistance. Polyunsaturated fatty acids found in many seed oils and fish oils increase plasma insulin and decrease insulin resistance. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are converted to eicosanoids (prostaglandins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes), which also affect hormone levels and play a role in platelet aggregation (clumping) especially in diabetic subjects. These findings will help medical professionals, dietitians, nutritionists, basic scientists and other health related professionals in recommending dietary fat to general population to reduce the incidence of diabetes.


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  • At 1:23 AM, Anonymous Guy said…

    On Sat, 10 May 2003 15:09:41 -0500, "Bonita" <> wrote:

    Most of us have the same frustration you have.

    I encounter a "diabetic expert" last  week that tell me the common types of diabetes.

    In all of medicine we are far from a real goal of  eliminating early deaths and long suffering.

    But in my work life  I functioned as a very limited person.   While we learn we have a long way to go.

    What disturbs me most is the PR people and even clinical people presenting themselves as something they are not.

    I just had a few simple tests.  The final cost was over $600,   If a real free enterprise system was in place the cost should be about $60.

    It will go on this way long after I am gone.  I do the following.  I use doctors less.  I have omitted several drugs where their benefit is very questionable.  I  practice eating control and blood sugar control. the perfect control is impossible for me but still  my goal.

    The I get busy.  Yesterday I installed an air conditioner mount.   Repaired several items. Moved a large air conditioner around myself to place  in storage.

    If I base my "thing" on goals I can achieve, I do so much better.  I can clean a wall from a wheel chair.

    As far as diabetes,  If I see a piece of paper in the ditch with the word diabetes  on it, I will find a way to retrieve.

    Now these many words come down it to get busy and to develop a win attitude. Not easy but worthwhile.

    I have worn out one power wheel chair.

    Don't take any Iraq currency and  :-)))).


  • At 4:08 AM, Anonymous Bonita said…

    Fat is a major source of energy for the body and it helps the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoids. While fat in our diet is essential to our health, too much saturated fat is associated with obesity, high blood pressure, coronary heart disease, and colon cancer. General guidelines for using fat in our diet are presented below.

      a.. Our liver uses saturated fats to manufacture cholesterol. Excessive dietary intake of saturated fats raise blood cholesterol levels, especially low-density lipoproteins (LDLs). The recommended daily intake of saturated fats should be kept below 10% of total caloric intake.   b.. Unlike the saturated fats, polyunsaturated fats (found in corn, soybean, safflower, and sunflower oils) may lower your total blood cholesterol level. However, large amounts of polyunsaturated fats also have a tendency to reduce your high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), so they should also be limited to 10% of total caloric intake.   c.. Monounsaturated fatty acids are found mostly in vegetable and nut oils such as olive, peanut, and canola. These fats reduce blood levels of LDLs by a small amount without affecting HDLs; they should be limited to 10-15% of total caloric intake.   d.. There are some indications that trans-fatty fatty acids raise LDL and lower HDL cholesterol levels.   e.. Total calories from fat should not constitute more than 30% of your total daily calories.   f.. Remember that 1g of fat produces 9 calories compared with 4 calories/gram of protein or carbohydrates. For more information on fats, see Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids, 2002, Chapter 8, pp 335-432, Food and Nutrition Board (FNB), Institute of Medicine (IOM); and National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) ATPIII Guidelines, September 2002. Also see my Cholesterol, Carbohydrates, and Protein pages.

    Fat deficiency signs?   1.. Dry scaly skin, dermatitis (indicates a possible linoleic acid deficiency)   2.. Hand tremors   3.. Inability to control blood pressure (may indicate a prostaglandin deficiency) If you suspect you have a fat deficiency, contact your doctor or healthcare professional immediately.

    What is fat? A fatty acid is a long hydrocarbon atomic chain capped by a carboxyl group (COOH). Common fatty acids are: palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid. Palmitic and stearic acid carbon atoms are always joined by hydrogen atoms, they are saturated with hydrogen atoms; oleic acid carbon atoms are joined by a carbon double bond and two hydrogen atoms are missing, they are monounsaturared; lineoleic acid carbon atoms are joined by multiple carbon double bonds, they are polyunsaturated.

    To make a normal fat, three fatty acid atoms are bound together with glycerol to form a triglyceride. Triglycerides that contain palmitic acid and stearic acid (for example, butter) are known as saturated fats and are usually solid at room temperature. Triglycerides with monounsaturated (for example, olive oil and canola oil) or polyunsaturated fatty acids (for example, essential fatty acids) are usually liquid at room temperatures. To solidify liquid fat you have to hydrogenate it; that is, you have to saturate it with hydrogen by breaking the carbon double bonds and attach hydrogen atoms. A side effect of hydrogenation are trans-fatty acids.

    Ingested fats enter the digestive system and are broken down into their glycerol and fatty acid components by the Lipase enzyme, these components are then reassembled into triglycerides for transport in the bloodstream.

    Essential fatty acids The most common fatty acids are found in animal fats and they can also be created directly from carbohydrates; they include:

      a.. Palmitic acid   b.. Stearic acid   c.. Oleic acid Other fatty acids called essential fatty acids (EFA) can't be created by your body and must be ingested, they include:

      a.. Linoleic acid (LA) (omega-6)   b.. Arachidonic acid (AA) (omega-6)   c.. Gamma linolenic acid (GLA) (omega-6)   d.. Dihomogamma linolenic acid (DGLA) (omega-6)   e.. Alpha linolenic acid (LNA) (omega-3)   f.. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (omega-3)   g.. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (omega-3) Essential fatty acids fall into two groups: omega-3 and omega-6. The 3 and 6 refer to the first carbon double bond position on the fatty acid chain. All essential fatty acids are polyunsaturated, and the 3 and 6 mean that the first double bond is either 3 or 6 carbons in from the end. Food sources high in Omega-6 fatty acids include: corn oil, sunflower oil and soybean oil. High levels of Omega-3 fatty acids can be found in flax seeds, pumpkin seeds, walnuts, salmon, trout and tuna. Omega-3 and Omega-6 EFAs should be balanced in the diet at a ratio of 2-to-1, rather than the normal 20-to-1 ratio seen in most Western diets.

  • At 4:53 AM, Anonymous Bonita said…

    n-3 Fatty Acids And Health

      1. There are two families of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA): the n-6 (omega 6) family and the n-3 (omega 3) family, derived from the essential fatty acids, linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid, respectively. These two fatty acids are essential because they cannot be made in the body and must be provided by the diet. The two families cannot be interconverted.

      2. The richest sources of alpha-linolenic acid include some seed oils (e.g. linseed oil, rapeseed oil, soya oil, walnut oil) and nuts (e.g. walnuts, peanuts). Other important sources are meat from grass-fed animals (e.g. beef) and green leafy vegetables (e.g. spinach). The very long chain derivatives of alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are found predominantly in fish oils and are also present in the flesh of oil-rich fish such as mackerel, salmon, kippers, herring, trout and sardines.

      3. The Government advises eating one to two portions of oil-rich fish per week, which will provide around 2-3g of the very long chain n-3 fatty acids. A separate recommendation of a weekly intake of 1.5g of EPA and DHA has also been made. Current average intake in the UK falls short of the recommendation for the very long chain n-3 fatty acids (EPA/DHA). Only around a third of people in the UK eat oil-rich fish on a regular basis and the average amongst these consumers is only 135g (i.e. one small portion per week).

      4. The recommendations for the n-3 fatty acids are the result of research which shows that diets rich in oil-rich fish can substantially reduce the risk of a fatal heart attack. The recent GISSI trial (1999) demonstrated the same protective effect with fish oil supplements; 1g of EPA and DHA daily reduced coronary heart disease deaths by 20%.

      5. The mechanism for their effect on risk of heart disease is unclear, although it is thought not to involve reduction in blood cholesterol. The very long chain n-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA) lower blood triglyceride concentrations both in the fasting state and after a meal; linolenic acid does not share this effect at comparable intakes. An elevated plasma triglyceride concentration, particularly in the fed state, is now recognised as being associated with the development of atherosclerosis. Both alpha-linolenic acid and the very long chain n-3 fatty acids have a beneficial effect on vascular function and protect against cardiac arrhythmias, which can cause sudden cardiac death.

      6. The recognition that DHA is a major constituent of the human brain and retina has resulted in considerable research in relation to its role in infant development. This research has led to concern about the adequacy of the diet of pregnant and breast-feeding women. DHA can be synthesised from alpha-linolenic acid in the body but the rate of synthesis may be inadequate in pre-term babies. Since breast milk contains DHA, the need for supplementation of infant formula has been raised. Studies in pre-term infants have shown DHA supplementation to have beneficial effects on visual function, at least in the short-term. However, further research is required to determine whether the n-3 fatty acid content of the infant diet may have long-term consequences on visual and cognitive development, particularly for the term infant.

      7. The long chain derivatives of linoleic (n-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (n-3) are precursors for the synthesis of eicosanoids. These are biologically active substances, which act locally to influence a wide range of functions in cells and tissues, including inflammation, blood clotting, reproduction and blood pressure. Eicosanoids derived from EPA tend to have less potent inflammatory and immunological effects than those derived from the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid. During the synthesis of these metabolites, the two families of PUFA compete for the same enzymes. The balance in intake of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids will therefore determine the types and amounts of eicosanoids in the body and so potentially influence the strength of the inflammatory response. This has sparked interest in a role for n-3 fatty acids in the treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, psoriasis and Crohn�s disease. Supplementation with large doses of fish oil has been shown to relieve symptoms in patients with rheumatoid arthritis but findings have been far less consistent for other inflammatory diseases.

      8. Evidence is beginning to accumulate to suggest that n-3 fatty acids may also be involved in the development of non-insulin dependent diabetes. While further research is needed in this area, the proposed mechanism suggests that a diet low in these fatty acids may favour the development of insulin resistance.

      9. It is becoming clear that the balance between intakes of the two families of PUFA may be more important for health than the actual amounts in the diet. This is because of accumulating knowledge of how these two families interact metabolically. The n-6 fatty acid content of the UK diet has risen substantially over the past couple of decades as the food industry have replaced traditional sources of fat (e.g. lard and butter) with vegetable oils (e.g. sunflower oil, corn oil), in response to research concerning heart disease. However, to some extent, very recently, the balance may have been partially redressed with the increased availability of rapeseed oil, which is now widely used in the UK.

      10. The intake of n-3 fatty acids in the diet can most readily be increased by choosing rapeseed oil instead of other vegetable oils for cooking. The consumption of oil-rich fish such as salmon, herring and mackerel once a week makes a significant contribution to the intake of very long chain n-3 fatty acids. Small amounts of these are also provided by meat and eggs. For those who do not like fish, supplements containing very long-chain n-3 fatty acids (either fish oil or algal oil) or foods fortified with them are an option. Foods rich in PUFA are vulnerable to rancidity through the oxidation of the fatty acids. This calls for particular care in ensuring that the foods themselves are protected by incorporation of appropriate antioxidants and that these products are consumed as part of a diet providing adequate amounts of the nutrients and other substances recognised as being protective (e.g. those present in fruit and vegetables).

    Notes: This is a summary of the findings form the British Nutrition Foundation conference, which was held on 1 December 1999, to draw attention to the briefing paper on �n-3 Fatty acids and Health�. Speakers were Dr Judy Buttriss (British Nutrition Foundation), Dr Philip Calder (University of Southhampton), Professor Terence Stephenson (University of Nottingham), Professor Tom Sanders (Kings College London University), Dr Anne-Marie Minihane (University of Reading), Dr Susan Jebb (Human Nutrition Research, Cambridge) and Mr Rene Josse (Hoffmann-La Roche, Switzerland). Professor Robert Pickard, Director-General of the BNF, chaired the meeting.

    The British nutrition Foundation provides independent and authoritative information on the relationship between food, nutrition and health. For more information about the BNF, see our web-site:

    Sara Stanner, Nutrition Scientist

    Andrea Werkman, BNF work placement student

  • At 5:53 AM, Anonymous Bonita said…>


    Report Offers New Eating and Physical Activity Targets To Reduce Chronic Disease Risk

    WASHINGTON -- To meet the body's daily energy and nutritional needs while minimizing risk for chronic disease, adults should get 45 percent to 65 percent of their calories from carbohydrates, 20 percent to 35 percent from fat, and 10 percent to 35 percent from protein, says the newest report on recommendations for healthy eating from the National Academies' Institute of Medicine. To maintain cardiovascular health at a maximal level, regardless of weight, adults and children also should spend a total of at least one hour each day in moderately intense physical activity, which is double the daily minimum goal set by the 1996 Surgeon General's report.

    Because carbohydrates, fat, and protein all serve as energy sources and can substitute for one another to some extent to meet caloric needs, the recommended ranges for consuming these nutrients should be useful and flexible for dietary planning. Earlier guidelines called for diets with 50 percent or more of carbohydrate and 30 percent or less of fat; protein intake recommendations are the same. The new acceptable ranges for children are similar to those for adults, except that infants and younger children need a slightly higher proportion of fat -- 25 percent to 40 percent of their caloric intake, said the panel that wrote the report.

    "We established ranges for fat, carbohydrates, and protein because they must be considered together," said panel chair Joanne Lupton, professor of nutrition, Texas A&M University, College Station. "Studies show that when people eat very low levels of fat combined with very high levels of carbohydrates, high-density lipoprotein concentration, or 'good' cholesterol, decreases. Conversely, high-fat diets can lead to obesity and its complications if caloric intake is increased as well, which is often the case. We believe these ranges will help people make healthy and more realistic choices based on their own food preferences."

    The report stresses the importance of balancing diet with physical activity, recommending total calories to be consumed by individuals of given heights, weights, and genders for each of four different levels of physical activity. For example, a 30-year-old woman who is 5 feet 5 inches tall and weighs 111 to 150 pounds should consume between 1,800 and 2,000 calories daily if she lives a sedentary lifestyle. However, if she is a very active person, her recommended total caloric intake increases to 2,500 to 2,800 calories per day. If her lifestyle fits the moderately active category as defined in the report, which is the minimum level of activity to decrease risk of chronic disease, she should eat between 2,200 and 2,500 calories daily. Using grams for the recommended ranges of intake, she should consume 55 to 97 grams of fat and 285 to 375 grams of carbohydrates per day.

    The new one-hour-a-day-total activity goal stems from studies of how much energy is expended on average each day by individuals who maintain a healthy weight. Energy expenditure is cumulative, including both low-intensity activities of daily life, such as stair climbing and housecleaning, and more vigorous exercise like swimming and cycling. Someone in a largely sedentary occupation can achieve the new exercise goal by engaging in a moderate-intensity activity, such as walking at 4 miles per hour, for a total of 60 minutes every day, or engaging in a high-intensity activity, such as jogging for 20 to 30 minutes four to seven days per week.

    New Dietary Recommendations

    Since the publication of the Recommended Dietary Allowances in 1989 and the Canadian Recommended Nutrient Intakes in 1990, new information has emerged about nutrient requirements that warrants the development of updated guidelines. This report, the sixth in a series, develops new guidelines for the United States and Canada for the consumption of energy, carbohydrates, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids, collectively known as macronutrients.

    In the past, recommended dietary allowances or RDAs have served as the benchmarks of nutritional adequacy in the United States. The new Dietary Reference Intakes, or DRIs, are established using an expanded concept that includes indicators of good health and the prevention of chronic disease, as well as possible adverse effects of overconsumption. The panel assessed thousands of scientific studies linking excessive or inadequate consumption of fats, carbohydrates, and protein with increased risk for dietary deficiency diseases, obesity, heart disease, diabetes, and other chronic illnesses. The DRIs include not only recommended intakes, intended to help individuals meet their daily nutritional requirements, but also tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) that help them avoid harm from consuming too much of a nutrient.

    The DRIs are designed to meet the needs of individuals who are healthy and free of specific diseases or conditions that may alter their daily nutritional requirements. It is expected that people known to have specific conditions or chronic diseases will get nutritional advice from their health professionals that is tailored to their special needs.

    Concern About Added Sugars

    Both children and adults should consume at least 130 grams of carbohydrates each day, the report says. However, this newly set RDA is based on the minimum amount of carbohydrates needed to produce enough glucose for the brain to function, and most people regularly consume far more.

    The report suggests that added sugars should comprise no more than 25 percent of total calories consumed. Distinguished from natural sugars, such as lactose found in milk and fructose found in fruits, added sugars are those incorporated into foods and beverages during production. Major sources include candy, soft drinks, fruit drinks, pastries, and other sweets. The suggested maximum level stems from the evidence that people whose diets are high in added sugars have lower intakes of essential nutrients.

    Are All Fats Bad?

    Fat is a major source of energy for the body and aids in the absorption of essential vitamins. Some foods that are major contributors of fat in the diet include butter, margarine, vegetable oils, visible fat on meat and poultry, whole milk, egg yolks, and nuts. High-fat diets usually mean increased intakes of saturated fat, which can raise the amount of low-density lipoprotein and the level of "bad" cholesterol in the bloodstream of some individuals and heightens their risk for heart disease. Meats, baked goods, and full-fat dairy products are the main sources of saturated fat in most diets. Because saturated fat and cholesterol provide no known beneficial role in preventing chronic diseases, they are not required at any level in the diet, the report says. Recognizing that completely eliminating saturated fat and cholesterol from the typical diet in the United States or Canada would make it very difficult to meet other nutritional guidelines, the panel recommended keeping consumption as low as possible while maintaining a nutritionally adequate diet.

    Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, also present in fat, reduce blood cholesterol levels and thus lower the risk of heart disease when they replace saturated fats in the diet. People must get two types of polyunsaturated fatty acids, known as alpha-linolenic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid) and linoleic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid), from the foods they consume since neither is synthesized in the body. A lack of either one will result in symptoms of deficiency, including scaly skin and dermatitis, although these deficiencies are extremely rare in the United States and Canada. The report sets recommended intakes for linoleic acid, present in high levels in vegetable oils such as safflower oil or corn oil, at 17 grams per day for men and 12 grams per day for women based on average intakes in the United States. For alpha-linolenic acid, found in milk and some vegetable oils such as soybean and flaxseed oils, the recommendations are 1.6 and 1.1 grams per day for men and women, respectively.

    Partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, such as those used in many margarines and shortenings, contain a particular form of unsaturated fat known as trans fatty acids. Trans fatty acids have physical properties generally resembling saturated fatty acids, and their presence tends to harden oils. The report's findings and recommendations on trans fatty acids were released in early July at the request of the Food and Drug Administration as an important step in its process to determine whether trans fat should be listed on nutrition labels. Often found in cookies, crackers, dairy products, meats, and fast food, trans fatty acids increase the risk of heart disease by boosting levels of bad cholesterol. Because they are not essential and provide no known health benefit, there is no safe level of trans fatty acids and people should eat as little of them as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet. Because trans fatty acids occur in so many types of food, an all-out ban is impractical and would make it extremely difficult to get a nutritional adequate diet, the panel added.

    New Facts on Fiber

    The report contains the first recommended intake levels for fiber from the Food and Nutrition Board. The fiber recommendations are based on studies that show an increased risk for heart disease when diets low in fiber are consumed. Although there is some evidence to suggest that fiber in the diet may also help to prevent colon cancer and promote weight control, the data are inconclusive at this point. The recommended daily intake for total fiber for adults 50 years and younger is set at 38

  • At 1:38 PM, Anonymous Ted Rosenberg said…

    cc'd by email it is a shame peopkle like Bonita are so angry and so ignorent that they beleive in frauds and stop taking meds

    The pharm industry sure rips us off, but, they don't hide cures, quite the oposite.  if they actually find cures, they would make billions.

    There has been considerable improvement in diabetes treatment in past yeras, and there will be more in the future, but a simple "cure" like the philosopher's stoner, is not likely, and only a blithering idiot would think it could be found without research.

    Sorry Bonita - but you gain a nomination for the Darwin Award.

  • At 3:53 PM, Anonymous Ted Rosenberg said…

    cc'd by email It looks like Jay Stevens has a new nom-de-plume, and, sometimes without caps

  • At 4:38 PM, Anonymous Phildo said…

    ... One of her is worth a thousand of you Ted.


  • At 4:53 PM, Anonymous Phildo said…

    ... More paranoid rantings from the twisted mind of the spammish Inquisitor-without-a-clue, Ted Rosentwat.

    For any newbies out there, killfile him now. The idiot is a rbid dog who attacks people at random. Will save you a lot of hassle and misinformation.


  • At 8:54 PM, Anonymous Frank Roy said…

    (snipped) The essential fatty acids are not in conjugated form. There are three enzymes that are involved in forming longer length fatty acids from Omega 3 and Omega 6 fatty acids. One is called elongase and the other two are Delta 5 and 6 desaturase. There is competition for these enzymes between Omega 3 and Omega 6 fatty acids. CLA also competes for these enzymes, but is not essential. Cow's milk and some other dairy products include a minor amount of CLA. Part of cell membranes are made up of fatty acids. The essential fatty acids are easily oxidized, consequently the food industry attempted to increase their shelf life by partially hydrogenizing them (trans fats). Linseed oil is rancid flax seed oil.


  • At 9:53 PM, Anonymous Bonita said…

    Yuck!  so what do we do then about these oils --- do we find them in salmon fillets and other 'raw' natural states?

    Bonita ...

    oxidized, consequently

  • At 11:23 PM, Anonymous Bonita said…

    Um, Ted---I've been posting here for years on again off again.  You know me, don't you?  I don't 'pretend' to be anyone but myself.  If some of my research is screwy, tell me so, but also tell me why and give me links and information to learn the appropriate knowlege.  Okay?



  • At 11:38 PM, Anonymous Bonita said…

    I detect underlying concern here --- Ted, if I"m off base, then tell me why without awarding me plaques on your wall of infamy.  Is it so wrong to want a cure for this condition? I'd like to know why you're not interested in finding one. These medications we take aren't curing us or they would be announced as 'the answer' to diabetes.



  • At 12:08 AM, Anonymous BJ_1971 said…

    sounds like you have done your research. i know how ya feel. i have been a type 2 diabetic for 2 1/2 years now. i have researched it alot and i think some (not all) of the advice of the so called diabetic experts are so wrong for us. my diabetic educater says to eat low carb but she tried to put me on 4 carbs a meal 3 meals a day with 2 snacks a day each with 2 carbs. that is 16 carbs a day and way way way too much. i would weigh 700 pounds if i ate that many carbs and my blood sugars would be sky-rocketing. i know genitics and a life long habbit of eating too many carbs is why iam a diabetic. but darn it, all the so caled experts for all these years have been telling us to eat low cal high carb diets and they still are telling ppl to do that. i just wish i would have knowen the truth. i dont want to wallow around in a hospital bed with no feet, no sight and no life. but life does go on i guess and i find that laughter and being silly helps me go on. good luck in your researching. being young at heart helps so much and being silly at times :daze: :spin: :roll: :wave:

    -- Posted via Active Low-Carber Forums, for Low-Carb & Atkins Diet Support  &

  • At 3:23 AM, Anonymous Quentin Grady said…

    This post not CC'd by email  On Sat, 10 May 2003 16:06:02 -0500, "Bonita" <> wrote:

    G'day G'day Bonita,

    Nice one.


          Is this multichoice test time?         Should we pick two correct answers out seven.

    Seriously Bonita, five of the above can be produced from the two essential fatty acids in the list and so are not essential ... at least in healthy people. I have every confidence in you finding the two essential fatty acids for yourself.

    For diabetics who are not yet in control some of the conversions are difficult and quite often research that applies to non-diabetics simply doesn't apply.

    BTW, I admire the way reading about the complications resulting from diabetes has jolted you into doing some research.  People respond so differently.  Some do denial. Some do denial then a massive catch up. Some react to the situation in a way that makes it the turning point in their lives.  Congratulations.

    You will pleased to know that you are not alone in this matter. There are quite a few people here who give considerable time to sorting out the nutritional fact from the fiction.

    Best wishes,    

    -- Quentin Grady       ^  ^  / New Zealand,       >#,#< [                     / \ /\     "... and the blind dog was leading."

  • At 6:08 AM, Anonymous Ted Rosenberg said…

    There IS no "cure" for diabetes

    Most new med improves life, but we are NOWHERE near anything like a cure and nothing YOU do will help very much

    Posting ream after ream of articles on the newsgroup, like Jay Stevens is NOT helping anybody.

    In general, it is mearly anoying - after all, most of us can do our own internet searches for obscure worthless articles, but, the one thing you are WRONG about, is the canard, loved by the snake oil peddlers and scammers, that the pharmicitical industry does not want a cure.

  • At 7:23 AM, Anonymous Quentin Grady said…

    This post not CC'd by email  On Sat, 10 May 2003 16:00:00 -0500, "Bonita" <> wrote:

    G'day G'day Bonita,

       Here is a similar publication by Bhathena SJ.  Both abstracts are interesting in that they attribute insulin resistance to lowered insulin levels.  This is an incredibly simple model compared with some.

    "Saturated and trans fatty acids (TFA) decrease insulin concentration leading to insulin resistance.  In contrast, PUFA increase plasma insulin concentration and decrease insulin resistance."

    Bhathena has many joint publications suggesting he is a respected researcher.

    1: Biofactors  2000;13(1-4):35-9

    Relationship between fatty acids and the endocrine system.  

    Bhathena SJ.  

    Phytonutrients Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, MD 20705, USA.  

    Significant interactions exist between fatty acids and the endocrine system. Hormones affect the metabolism of fatty acids and the fatty acid composition of tissue lipids. The principal hormones involved in lipid metabolism are insulin, glucagon, catecholamines, cortisol and growth hormone. The concentrations of these hormones are altered in chronic degenerative conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease, which in turn lead to alterations in tissue lipids. Lipogenesis and lipolysis, which modulate fatty acid concentrations in plasma and tissues, are under hormonal control. Neuropeptides are involved in lipid metabolism in brain and other tissues. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are also precursors for eicosanoids including prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and thromboxanes, which have hormone-like activities. Fatty acids in turn alter both hormone and neuropeptide concentrations and their receptors. Saturated and trans fatty acids (TFA) decrease insulin concentration leading to insulin resistance. In contrast, PUFA increase plasma insulin concentration and decrease insulin resistance. In humans, omega-3 PUFA alter the levels of opioid peptides in plasma.  

    Publication Types: Review Review, Tutorial  

    PMID: 11237196 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]  

    -- Quentin Grady       ^  ^  / New Zealand,       >#,#< [                     / \ /\     "... and the blind dog was leading."

  • At 8:23 AM, Anonymous Bonita said…

    whoa, great stuff there, Quentin.  Thanks for the input.


    ... <>

  • At 10:08 AM, Anonymous Bonita said…

    I know that not all my research will be gems.  Some will be fools's gold.  By point is that if I read nothing at all, I learn nothing.  If I read everything, I will be able to sort that fact from fiction eventually.  Right now, I"m just ravenous for information.  Better that than ravenous for sugar.

    Yes, this quest feels good.  I may be tilting at windmills (would say quixotic but I've been accused of verbosity), but who cares?  I"m harming no one, not even myself over this, and I just may stumble across something useful.


    ... <>


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